Psicothema was founded in Asturias (northern Spain) in 1989, and is published jointly by the Psychology Faculty of the University of Oviedo and the Psychological Association of the Principality of Asturias (Colegio Oficial de Psicología del Principado de Asturias).
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Psicothema, 2009. Vol. Vol. 21 (nº 1). 76-82

The role of metacognitive experiences in the learning process

Anastasia Efklides

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

Metacognition in the form of metacognitive knowledge (MK) —in this case, beliefs about learning—provides a database from which the learner can select strategies for the regulation of learning. However, strategic regulation presupposes that the learner is aware that learning is not progressing well, or fluently, or has failed. This awareness takes the form of metacognitive experiences (ME), that is, feelings, estimates, or judgments related to the features of the learning task, of the cognitive processing as it takes place, or of its outcome. The critical feature of ME is their affective character which gives them access both to the cognitive and the affective regulatory loop of behavior. Being part of the affective loop, ME are related to motivation and self-processes; being part of the cognitive loop, they are connected to MK and to metacognitive skills, the latter being declarative and procedural knowledge. Thus, ME offer awareness that links the present with the past learning experiences and facilitates or inhibits self-regulation of learning in the present as well as in the future.

El papel de la experiencia metacognitiva en el proceso de aprendizaje. La metacognición, entendida como conocimiento metacognitivo —en este caso, creencias acerca del aprendizaje—, aporta la información en base a la cual el aprendiz selecciona las estrategias apropiadas para regular el aprendizaje. No obstante, la regulación estratégica presupone que el aprendiz es consciente que el proceso de aprendizaje no discurre por los cauces adecuados, no fluye, o que simplemente ha fracasado. Esta conciencia toma la forma de experiencia metacognitiva, es decir, sentimientos, estimaciones o juicios relativos a las tareas de aprendizaje, sobre cómo tiene lugar el procesamiento cognitivo, así como su resultado. El aspecto crítico de la experiencia metacognitiva es su carácter afectivo, el cual facilita el acceso a los componentes cognitivo y afectivo del bucle regulatorio de la conducta. Como parte de la dimensión afectiva del bucle, la experiencia metacognitiva tiene que ver con la motivación y los procesos del yo; como parte de la dimensión cognitiva del bucle se vincula con el conocimiento y las habilidades metacognitivas, lo que posteriomente dará lugar al conocimiento declarativo y procedimental. Por tanto, la experiencia metacognitiva supone la conciencia que une las experiencias de aprendizaje presentes y pasadas y facilita o inhibe la autorregulación del aprendizaje en el presente y en el futuro.


Impact Factor JCR SSCI Clarivate 2023 = 3.2 (Q1) / CiteScore SCOPUS 2023 = 6.5 (Q1)