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Psicothema, 2012. Vol. Vol. 24 (nº 2). 188-192




¿Es la dislexia un trastorno perceptivo-visual? Nuevos datos empíricos

Paz Suárez Coalla y Fernando Cuetos Vega

Universidad de Oviedo

Numerosos estudios han demostrado que el origen de la dislexia evolutiva es de tipo fonológico, ya que los disléxicos tienen dificultades importantes para procesar fonemas. Sin embargo, se siguen utilizando criterios visuales para diagnosticar la dislexia, así como para desarrollar métodos de intervención. Este estudio pretende comprobar si realmente existen problemas perceptivo-visuales en los niños disléxicos. Un grupo de niños disléxicos evolutivos y otro grupo de niños sin dificultad lectora, emparejados en edad cronológica, participaron en dos experimentos. Uno de los estudios estaba basado en el test Reversal y el otro era una tarea de decisión visual, en la cual los participantes tenían que decidir si dos letras eran iguales o diferentes. Se presentaron 40 pares de letras, para medir tiempos de reacción y errores. Los disléxicos tenían un rendimiento similar a los controles en la detección de estímulos visuales diferentes. Los disléxicos evolutivos no parecen presentar problemas perceptivo-visuales, sino una dificultad específica para recuperar el código fonológico de los grafemas.

Is dyslexia a visual perceptive disorder? New empirical data.Several studies have shown that a phonological deficit is the origin of developmental dyslexia, because dyslexics have important difficulties in mapping orthographic to phonological codes. However, visual criteria are still used for the diagnosis of dyslexia and to develop methods of intervention. This study attempts to determine whether there are visual problems in dyslexic children. To this aim, dyslexic children and children without reading difficulties, matched by chronological age, participated in two experiments. One study was based on the Reversal test and the other was a visual decision task in which participants had to decide whether two letters were the same or different. There were 40 pairs of letters, to measure reaction times and mistakes. The results showed that dyslexics had similar performance to controls in the detection of different visual stimuli. Developmental dyslexics do not appear to have visual perceptual problems, but a particular difficulty to retrieve the phonological code of graphemes.

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