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Psicothema, 2012. Vol. Vol. 24 (nº 4). 608-613

Bullying and cyberbullying: Overlapping and predictive value of the co-occurrence

Rosario Del Rey1, Paz Elipe2 and Rosario Ortega-Ruiz3,4

1 Universidad de Sevilla,
2 Universidad de Jaén,
3 Universidad de Córdoba and
4 Visiting Professor at University of Greenwich

Several studies show certain co-occurrence of the traditional bullying and the cyberbullying. However, the results about relation and homogeneity among the roles of each of them are not unanimous. The present study intends to advance in the knowledge about the above-mentioned co-occurrence by exploring the dimensions of victimization and traditional aggression and cyber-victimization and cyber-aggression and by identifying its eventual directionality. A short-term longitudinal design was developed. The sample was formed by 274 adolescents, aging 12 to 18 years-old, belonging to 2 schools of Andalusia (South of Spain). In order to value the impact of bullying and cyberbullying the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIPQ) and the European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (EBIPQ) were used. The results show important simultaneity among both phenomena and suggest that although in cyberbullying —cyber-victimization and cyber-aggression— may be predicted because of previous involvement of the subject in traditional bullying, on the contrary it does not happen. In addition, previous victimization is a risk factor for traditional bullying and for cyberbullying. Results are discussed in relation to the process and socio-group dynamics arising from the bullying and cyberbullying phenomena, and in terms of their prevention.

Bullying y cyberbullying: solapamiento y valor predictivo de la co-ocurrencia.Diversos estudios han puesto de manifiesto cierta co-ocurrencia de los fenómenos bullying tradicional y cyberbullying. No obstante, los resultados sobre la relación y homogeneidad en los roles que conforman cada uno de estos fenómenos distan de ser unánimes. El presente estudio pretende avanzar en el conocimiento sobre dicha co-ocurrencia explorando las dimensiones de victimización y agresión tradicional y cybervictimización y cyberagresión, e identificando su posible direccionalidad. Se realizó un diseño longitudinal a corto plazo. La muestra fueron 274 adolescentes, entre 12 y 18 años, pertenecientes a 2 centros educativos de Andalucía (sur de España). Para valorar bullying y cyberbullying se utilizaron el European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIPQ) y el European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (EBIPQ). Los resultados constatan la importante simultaneidad de los dos fenómenos y sugieren que, mientras la implicación en cyberbullying —cybervictimización y cyberagresión— puede ser predicha, en parte, a partir de la implicación en bullying tradicional, no ocurre lo mismo en dirección opuesta. Además, la victimización previa es un factor de riesgo tanto en bullying tradicional como en cyberbullying. Se discuten los resultados en relación a los procesos y dinámicas sociogrupales que subyacen a los fenómenos bullying y cyberbullying y en términos de prevención de ambos fenómenos.


Impact factor 2022:  JCR WOS 2022:  FI = 3.6 (Q2);  JCI = 1.21 (Q1) / SCOPUS 2023:  SJR = 1.07;  CiteScore = 6.4 (Q1)