Psicothema was founded in Asturias (northern Spain) in 1989, and is published jointly by the Psychology Faculty of the University of Oviedo and the Psychological Association of the Principality of Asturias (Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos del Principado de Asturias).
We currently publish four issues per year, which accounts for some 100 articles annually. We admit work from both the basic and applied research fields, and from all areas of Psychology, all manuscripts being anonymously reviewed prior to publication.

  • Director: Laura E. Gómez Sánchez
  • Frequency:
         February | May | August | November
  • ISSN: 0214-9915
  • Digital Edition:: 1886-144X
  • Address: Ildelfonso Sánchez del Río, 4, 1º B
    33001 Oviedo (Spain)
  • Phone: 985 285 778
  • Fax: 985 281 374

Psychometric properties of the Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire (LMSQ-R) in young Spanish adults

Zahira González-Díez1, Izaskun Orue Sola1, Esther Calvete Zumalde1 and John H. Riskind21

Universidad de Deusto and
2 George Mason University

Background: The looming cognitive style (LCS) is a specific putative cognitive vulnerability to anxiety but not to depression. LCS is assessed by the Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire (LMSQ-R), which assesses a tendency to generate, maintain, and attend to internally generated scenarios of threats as rapidly increasing and headed in one’s direction. This study investigated the structure, measurement invariance across subsamples, concurrent validity, consistency, and stability of a Spanish translation of the LMSQ-R. Method: LMSQ-R was examined in a large sample of Spanish students (n = 1,128, 56.47% women). A subsample of 675 was followed-up six months later. The participants also completed measures of social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and depression. Results: The results provide evidence from factor analyses confirming two second-order factors (social and physical threat). Multiple-group analysis indicated the measurement invariance of the model for men and women and for groups that displayed clinically significant generalized social anxiety and those that did not. Women scored higher on the LMSQ-R. Partial correlation analyses indicated that LMSQ-R scales were independently associated with symptoms of generalized and social anxiety but they were not independently associated with depression. Conclusions: The Spanish version of the LMSQ-R has shown good psychometric properties.

Propiedades psicométricas del Cuestionario de Estilo Disfuncional de Looming (LMSQ-R) en jóvenes españoles. Antecedentes: el Estilo Cognitivo de Looming (ECL) es una vulnerabilidad cognitiva específica a la ansiedad pero no a la depresión. El ECL se evalúa con el Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire (LMSQ-R), que mide la tendencia interna a generar, mantener y atender escenarios en los que la amenaza aumenta dirigiéndose hacia la persona. Evaluamos la estructura, invarianza de medida entre submuestras, consistencia, estabilidad y validez concurrente de la adaptación al español del LMSQ-R. Método: el LMSQ-R se examinó en una muestra de estudiantes españoles (n = 1.128, 56,47% mujeres), evaluando a una submuestra de 675 seis meses después. Los participantes completaron medidas de ansiedad social, ansiedad generalizada y depresión. Resultados: los resultados obtenidos confirman una estructura de dos factores de segundo orden (amenaza social y física). Los análisis multigrupo indicaron la invarianza de medida a través de género y en un grupo con puntuaciones clínicas en ansiedad social y sin ellas. Las mujeres puntuaron más alto en el LMSQ-R. Las correlaciones indicaron la asociación de las escalas del LMSQ-R con los síntomas de ansiedad social y generalizada pero no se asociaban independientemente con la depresión. Conclusiones: la versión española del LMSQ-R ha demostrado buenos índices de fiabilidad y validez.


Impact factor 2021:   JCR (WOS): 4.104 (Q1)   |   SJR (Scopus) : 1.308 (Q1)    |  CiteScore 2020: 5,3