Psicothema was founded in Asturias (northern Spain) in 1989, and is published jointly by the Psychology Faculty of the University of Oviedo and the Psychological Association of the Principality of Asturias (Colegio Oficial de Psicología del Principado de Asturias).
We currently publish four issues per year, which accounts for some 100 articles annually. We admit work from both the basic and applied research fields, and from all areas of Psychology, all manuscripts being anonymously reviewed prior to publication.

  • Director: Laura E. Gómez Sánchez
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  • ISSN: 0214-9915
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Exploring the factorial structure of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2: Invariance across language, gender, age and type of sport

Yago Ramis1, Carme Viladrich1, Catarina Sousa1 and Caroline Jannes2

1 Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and
2 Ghent University

Background: This study evaluates the metric and scalar invariance of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2), which is considered one of the best sport performance anxiety assessment tools for child and adolescent athletes, across four sampling variables: language, gender, age and type of sport. Method: The participants were 842 athletes (Mage = 11.73, SD = 2.20) from Spain, Belgium and Portugal, each of whom completed the language-adapted version of the SAS-2. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the invariance of the measurement model, and the relative importance of the sampling variables was assessed using a multiple indicator multiple causes model (MIMIC). Results: The results revealed metric and scalar invariance across all sampling variables and null to modest effects of gender, age and type of sport as covariates for the factors of the SAS-2. However, there was a marked effect (ß = -.56) of language on worry, which reflected lower scores on this factor for the Flemish sample. Conclusions: The results of this study provide evidence of the invariance of the SAS-2 across samples, thereby endorsing the reliability of its factorial structure for future multi-group research.

Exploración de la estructura factorial de la Escala de Ansiedad Competitiva SAS-2: invariancia a través de lenguaje, género, edad y tipo de deporte. Antecedentes: este estudio evalúa la invariancia métrica y escalar de la Escala de Ansiedad Competitiva-2 (SAS-2), considerada una de las mejores herramientas de evaluación de la ansiedad competitiva en niños y adolescentes, a través de cuatro variables muestrales: lenguaje, género, edad y tipo de deporte. Método: los participantes fueron 842 deportistas (Medad = 11.73; DE = 2.20) de España, Bélgica y Portugal, que completaron la versión adaptada del SAS-2. Se utilizó un análisis factorial confirmatorio para analizar la invariancia del modelo de medida y se llevó a cabo un modelo de múltiples indicadores y múltiples causas (MIMIC) para evaluar la importancia relativa de las variables muestrales. Resultados: los resultados revelaron invariancia métrica y escalar a través de todas las variables muestrales y efectos nulos o moderados de género, edad y tipo de deporte como covariables de los factores del SAS-2. Sin embargo, se detectó un efecto notable (ß = -.56) del lenguaje sobre la preocupación, reflejando niveles menores de este factor en la versión flamenca. Conclusiones: los resultados de este estudio proporcionan pruebas de la invariancia del SAS-2 entre muestras, certificando la fiabilidad de su estructura factorial para futuras investigaciones multigrupo.


Impact factor 2022:  JCR WOS 2022:  FI = 3.6 (Q2);  JCI = 1.21 (Q1) / SCOPUS 2023:  SJR = 1.07;  CiteScore = 6.4 (Q1)