Psicothema was founded in Asturias (northern Spain) in 1989, and is published jointly by the Psychology Faculty of the University of Oviedo and the Psychological Association of the Principality of Asturias (Colegio Oficial de Psicología del Principado de Asturias).
We currently publish four issues per year, which accounts for some 100 articles annually. We admit work from both the basic and applied research fields, and from all areas of Psychology, all manuscripts being anonymously reviewed prior to publication.

  • Director: Laura E. Gómez Sánchez
  • Frequency:
         February | May | August | November
  • ISSN: 0214-9915
  • Digital Edition:: 1886-144X
  • Address: Ildelfonso Sánchez del Río, 4, 1º B
    33001 Oviedo (Spain)
  • Phone: 985 285 778
  • Fax: 985 281 374

Evolution of Gender Stereotypes in Spain: From 1985 to 2018

Miguel Moya and Alba Moya-Garófano

Universidad de Granada

Background: Gender stereotypes are the images, beliefs, or expectations that people have about men and women. Have these stereotypes changed in Spain in recent decades? Method: In this study we present data on gender stereotypes in Spain in two different time periods (1985, N = 1060; and 2018, N = 802). Results: Results indicate that of the four components of the stereotypes analyzed (traits, role behaviors, occupations, and physical characteristics), the stereotypes in three of them have changed. In role behaviors and occupations, people perceive that men have increased their presence in female-linked gender roles and occupations, and that women have increased their presence in roles and occupations that are traditionally male-linked. Women in 2018 are more associated with physical characteristics traditionally associated with men, but men are not perceived as more associated with physical characteristics traditionally linked to women. In personality traits the stereotype has not changed: In agentic traits there were no differences between men and women in 1985 and in 2018; and communal traits were more attributed to women than men in 1985 and in 2018. Conclusions: These results show that although gender stereotypes still exist in Spain, they have changed considerably, at least in several dimensions.

Evolución de los Estereotipos de Género en España: de 1985 a 2018. Antecedentes: los estereotipos de género son las imágenes, creencias o expectativas que las personas tienen sobre hombres y mujeres. ¿Han cambiado estos estereotipos en España en las últimas décadas? Método: presentamos datos sobre los estereotipos de género en España en dos periodos (1985, N =1060; y 2018, N = 802). Resultados: los resultados indican que de los cuatro componentes de los estereotipos analizados (rasgos, conductas de rol, ocupaciones y características físicas), en tres de ellos los estereotipos han cambiado. Se percibe que los hombres han aumentado su presencia en los roles y ocupaciones de género vinculados a las mujeres, y que las mujeres han aumentado su presencia en los tradicionalmente vinculados a los hombres. Las mujeres en 2018 aparecen más asociadas con características físicas tradicionalmente masculinas, pero los hombres no se perciben más asociados a las características físicas femeninas. En los rasgos de personalidad, el estereotipo no ha cambiado: en los agénticos no hubo diferencias entre hombres y mujeres en 1985 ni en 2018; y los rasgos comunales fueron más atribuidos a las mujeres que a los hombres en 1985 y en 2018. Conclusiones: estos resultados muestran que, aunque todavía existen estereotipos de género en España, han cambiado considerablemente, al menos en algunas dimensiones.


Impact factor 2022:  JCR WOS 2022:  FI = 3.6 (Q2);  JCI = 1.21 (Q1) / SCOPUS 2023:  SJR = 1.07;  CiteScore = 6.4 (Q1)