Psicothema was founded in Asturias (northern Spain) in 1989, and is published jointly by the Psychology Faculty of the University of Oviedo and the Psychological Association of the Principality of Asturias (Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos del Principado de Asturias).
We currently publish four issues per year, which accounts for some 100 articles annually. We admit work from both the basic and applied research fields, and from all areas of Psychology, all manuscripts being anonymously reviewed prior to publication.

  • Director: Laura E. Gómez Sánchez
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         February | May | August | November
  • ISSN: 0214-9915
  • Digital Edition:: 1886-144X
  • Address: Ildelfonso Sánchez del Río, 4, 1º B
    33001 Oviedo (Spain)
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Validation of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7) in Spanish Pregnant Women

Cristina Soto-Balbuena1, María de la Fe Rodríguez-Muñoz2, and Huynh-Nhu Le3

1 Hospital Central Universitario de Asturias,
2 UNED, and
3 George Washington University

Background: Anxiety during pregnancy is one of the most common mental health problems and a significant risk factor for postpartum depression. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) is one of the most widely used self-report measures of anxiety symptoms available in multiple languages. This study evaluates the psychometric properties and underlying factor structures of the Spanish GAD-7 among pregnant women in Spain. Method: Spanish-speaking pregnant women (N = 385) were recruited from an urban obstetrics setting in Northern Spain. Women completed the GAD-7 and the anxiety subscale of the Symptom Checklist (SCL90-R) at three time points, once per trimester. The reliability, concurrent validity, and factor analyses were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties and factor structure, respectively. Results: In the first trimester, the GAD-7 demonstrated good internal consistency (a = 0.89). GAD-7 is positively correlated with SCL90-R (anxiety subscale; r=0.75; p < 0.001). The proposed one-factor structure is found using exploratory factor analysis —FACTOR program — with Unweighted Least Squares procedure and optimal implementation of parallel analysis (GFI = 0.99). Conclusions: Health providers should screen for anxiety using the GAD-7 during pregnancy among urban Spanish-speaking samples to provide appropriate follow-up care.

Validación de la Escala de Cribado del Trastorno de Ansiedad Generalizado  (GAD-7) en mujeres embarazadas españolas. Antecedentes: la ansiedad durante el embarazo es uno de los problemas de salud más comunes y un factor de riesgo para la depresión posparto. El Trastorno de Ansiedad Generalizada-7 es una de las medidas de autoinforme de síntomas de ansiedad más utilizadas en varios idiomas. Este estudio evalúa las propiedades psicométricas y la estructura factorial del GAD-7 español en mujeres embarazadas. Método: se reclutaron mujeres embarazadas (N = 385) de un entorno de obstetricia urbana en el norte de España. Las mujeres completaron el GAD-7 y la subescala de ansiedad del SCL90-R en tres puntos temporales. La fiabilidad, la validez concurrente y los análisis factoriales se realizaron para evaluar las propiedades psicométricas y las estructuras factoriales, respectivamente. Resultados: en la primera toma de medidas el GAD-7 demostró una buena consistencia interna (a = 0.89). GAD-7 se correlaciona positivamente con SCL90-R (subescala de ansiedad; r = 0.75; p <0.001). Mediante análisis factorial exploratorio – programa FACTOR, extracción de factores de mínimos cuadrados no ponderados, análisis paralelo con implementación óptima – se obtiene una estructura unifactorial (GFI = 0.99). Conclusiones: los profesionales deberían evaluar la ansiedad usando el GAD-7 durante el embarazo entre muestras urbanas de habla hispana para brindar atención adecuada.


Impact factor 2022:  JCR WOS 2022:  FI = 3.6 (Q2);  JCI = 1.21 (Q1) / SCOPUS 2022:  SJR = 1.097;  CiteScore = 6.4 (Q1)