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Psicothema was founded in Asturias (northern Spain) in 1989, and is published jointly by the Psychology Faculty of the University of Oviedo and the Psychological Association of the Principality of Asturias (Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos del Principado de Asturias).
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Measurement Invariance and Latent Mean Differences Between American, Spanish and Chinese Adolescents Using the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A)

María Soledad Torregrosa Díez1, María Isabel Gómez Núñez1, Ricardo Sanmartín López2, José Manuel García Fernández2, Annette M. La Greca3, Xinyue Zhou4, Jesús Redondo Pacheco5, and Candido J. Ingles Saura6

1 International University of La Rioja (Spain),
2 University of Alicante (Spain),
3 University of Miami (USA),
4 Zhejiang University (China),
5 Pontificia Bolivariana University (Colombia), and
6 Miguel Hernández University (Spain)

Background: Social anxiety is one of the most prevalent disorders among adolescents (Stein et al., 2017). The main aim of this study was to analyze the equivalence of scores on the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) using structural equation modeling and identify differences in latent means of social anxiety in China, Spain, and the USA. Method: Random sampling was used to recruit participants, which included 536 Chinese (46% girls), 1,178 Spanish (55.3% girls) and 866 North American (55.1% girls) adolescents. The participants’ ages ranged between 14 and 17 years old. Results: The SAS-A three-factor correlated model of social anxiety remained invariant between the Spanish and North American adolescents, but results could not be replicated in the Chinese adolescents [M2 = ?S-B?¬≤ (?df, p) = 4732.56 (36, < .01)]. Analyses of latent differences between Spain and the USA showed that Spanish adolescents had higher scores than North Americans for Fear of Negative Evaluation (TS = -9.630; d = .44) and for Social Avoidance and General Anxiety towards people (TS = -2.717; d = .12). Conclusions: The results are interpreted according to the cultural traits of individualism-collectivism and self-construal, and practical implications are discussed.

Análisis de Invarianza y Diferencias de Medias Latentes Entre Adolescentes Americanos, Españoles y Chinos Usando la Escala de Ansiedad Social para Adolescentes (SAS-A). Antecedentes: la ansiedad social es uno de los trastornos con mayor prevalencia en adolescentes (Stein et al., 2017). Así, el propósito principal de este estudio fue analizar la invarianza de la Escala de Ansiedad Social para Adolescentes (SAS-A) mediante un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales y examinar las diferencias de medias latentes en ansiedad social en adolescentes de China, España y EE.UU. Método: los participantes se seleccionaron a través de muestreo aleatorio: 534 chinos (46% chicas), 1.178 españoles (55,3% chicas) y 866 norteamericanos (55,1% chicas), con edades comprendidas entre los 14 y 17 años. Resultados: las puntuaciones del modelo de tres factores correlacionados de ansiedad social de la SAS-A resultaron invariantes entre adolescentes españoles y norteamericanos, pero estos resultados no fueron replicados en adolescentes chinos [M2 = ?S-B?¬≤ (?df, p) = 4732.56 (36, < .01)]. El análisis de medias latentes entre España y EE.UU. mostró que los adolescentes españoles manifestaban niveles más altos de Miedo ante las evaluaciones negativas (TS = -9.630; d = .44) y Evitación social y ansiedad general hacia las personas (TS = -2.717; d = .12). Conclusiones: estos hallazgos fueron interpretados atendiendo al de individualismo-colectivismo y las concepciones culturales de la propia persona, analizando sus implicaciones prácticas.

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