Psicothema was founded in Asturias (northern Spain) in 1989, and is published jointly by the Psychology Faculty of the University of Oviedo and the Psychological Association of the Principality of Asturias (Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos del Principado de Asturias).
We currently publish four issues per year, which accounts for some 100 articles annually. We admit work from both the basic and applied research fields, and from all areas of Psychology, all manuscripts being anonymously reviewed prior to publication.

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Psychometric Properties of the PCS and the PCS-4 in Individuals With Musculoskeletal Pain

Claudio Bascour-Sandoval1,2, Javier Albayay3, Agustín Martínez-Molina4, Arlett Opazo-Sepúlveda2, Claudia Lacoste-Abarzúa 2, Diego Bielefeldt-Astudillo2, Rubén Gajardo-Burgos5, and Germán Galvéz-García1,6

1 Universidad de La Frontera (Chile),
2 Universidad Autónoma de Chile (Chile),
3 Università degli Studi di Trento (Italy),
4 Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,
5 Universidad Austral de Chile (Chile), and
6 Université Lumière Lyon
2 (France)

Background: The factor structure of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) has rarely been adequately analyzed (e.g., performing principal component analyses rather than factorial approximations). We aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PCS through a variety of exploratory and confirmatory factorial approaches. Method: Three hundred ninety-four Chilean patients with musculoskeletal pain were included (age, M = 49.61, SD = 18.00; 71.57% women). Eight factorial models were proposed to analyze the structure of the data. In addition, validity evidence of the PCS based on relationships with other variables were analyzed considering pain intensity and kinesiophobia. Results: The results suggest a unidimensional structure. Models with more than one dimension exhibited undesirable factor loadings or inadequate indices of fit. Based on these results, a short version of the scale composed of 4 items is proposed (PCS-4). The PCS-4 scores demonstrated high levels of invariance between sex, chronicity, and education groups and also were associated with pain and kinesiophobia. Conclusions: The results of the PCS-4 Spanish version showed evidence of reliability and validity for adequately measuring pain catastrophizing in Chileans who suffer from musculoskeletal pain. The PCS-4 is a short form that should be explored in future studies (e.g., in other Spanish-speaking populations).

Propiedades Psicométricas de la PCS y PCS-4 en Individuos con Dolor Musculoesquelético. Antecedentes: la estructura factorial de la Escala de Catastrofización del Dolor (PCS) rara vez se ha analizado adecuadamente. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las propiedades psicométricas del PCS a través de diferentes enfoques factoriales exploratorios y confirmatorios. Método: se incluyeron trescientos noventa y cuatro pacientes chilenos con dolor musculoesquelético (edad, M=49,61; DE=18,00; 71,57% mujeres). Se propusieron ocho modelos factoriales. Asimismo, se analizó la evidencia de validez de la PCS basada en relaciones con otras variables considerando la intensidad del dolor y la kinesiofobia. Resultados: los resultados sugieren una estructura unidimensional. Los modelos con más de una dimensión mostraron cargas factoriales o índices de ajuste inadecuados. A partir de estos resultados se propone una versión corta de la escala compuesta por 4 ítems (PCS-4). Las puntuaciones de PCS-4 mostraron altos niveles de invarianza entre sexos, cronicidad del dolor y niveles educativos. La PCS-4 también se asoció con otras medias de dolor y kinesiofobia. Conclusiones: los resultados de la PCS-4 versión en español mostraron evidencia de fiabilidad y validez para medir adecuadamente el catastrofismo del dolor en chilenos con dolor musculoesquelético. El PCS-4 es una forma corta que debería explorarse en estudios futuros (por ejemplo, en otras poblaciones hispanoparlantes).


Impact factor 2021:   JCR (WOS): 4.104 (Q1)   |   SJR (Scopus) : 1.308 (Q1)    |  CiteScore 2020: 5,3