Psicothema was founded in Asturias (northern Spain) in 1989, and is published jointly by the Psychology Faculty of the University of Oviedo and the Psychological Association of the Principality of Asturias (Colegio Oficial de Psicología del Principado de Asturias).
We currently publish four issues per year, which accounts for some 100 articles annually. We admit work from both the basic and applied research fields, and from all areas of Psychology, all manuscripts being anonymously reviewed prior to publication.

  • Director: Laura E. Gómez Sánchez
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  • ISSN: 0214-9915
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    33001 Oviedo (Spain)
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A Year of Pandemic: Psychological Effects in Spanish Children from 3 to 11 Years of Age

Marta Giménez-Dasi1, Laura Quintanilla2 and Teresa Simón López1

1 Universidad Complutense de Madrid,
2 Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia

Background: After the lockdown, schools adopted measures to avoid infection, which changed pre-pandemic routines. We evaluated whether the new school conditions constituted a stress factor for children or contributed to their recovery after the impact of the lockdown period. Method: Participants included 291 families with children between 3 and 11 years of age. The children were assessed by parents through the Child and Adolescent Assessment System (SENA) at three time points: T1 (before COVID-19 confinement), T2 (after the children had spent between 4 and 6 weeks confined), and T3 (one year after the beginning of the pandemic). Results: For Preschoolers, no statistical differences were found in any scale or time point. For primary-school children, the differences between T1 and T3 were not significant. Comparisons between T2 and T3 showed significant differences in Willingness to study, Emotional regulation and Hyperactivity and impulsivity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that returning to school might have improved some dimensions of primary-school children’s well-being. However, it seems that neither the confinement nor the restrictive measures have had a negative effect on our sample. To interpret these findings, we discuss the psychological factors of protection and vulnerability.

Antecedentes: Tras el confinamiento, la escuela se adaptó a las restricciones para controlar el COVID-19. Evaluamos si el regreso al colegio constituyó un estresor para los niños o contribuyó a su recuperación tras el impacto del confinamiento. Método: Participaron 291 familias con niños entre 3 y 11 años. Los padres evaluaron a los niños a través del Sistema de Evaluación de Niños y Adolescentes (SENA) en tres momentos: T1 (unas semanas antes del confinamiento), T2 (después de estar entre 4 y 6 semanas confinados) y T3 (un año después del inicio de la pandemia). Resultados: Para los niños de Infantil, las comparaciones no mostraron diferencias en ninguna de las escalas y ninguno de los tiempos evaluados. Para los niños de Primaria, no se hallaron diferencias entre T1 y T3. La comparación entre T2 y T3 indicó una mejora en las escalas Disposición al estudio, Regulación emocional e Hiperactividad e impulsividad. Conclusiones: La vuelta al colegio contribuyó a mejorar algunas dimensiones en los niños de Primaria. Sin embargo, parece que ni el confinamiento ni las posteriores medidas restrictivas han tenido un impacto negativo en los niños de esta muestra. Para interpretar estos resultados discutimos los factores de protección y vulnerabilidad psicológica.


Impact factor 2022:  JCR WOS 2022:  FI = 3.6 (Q2);  JCI = 1.21 (Q1) / SCOPUS 2023:  SJR = 1.07;  CiteScore = 6.4 (Q1)