Psicothema was founded in Asturias (northern Spain) in 1989, and is published jointly by the Psychology Faculty of the University of Oviedo and the Psychological Association of the Principality of Asturias (Colegio Oficial de Psicología del Principado de Asturias).
We currently publish four issues per year, which accounts for some 100 articles annually. We admit work from both the basic and applied research fields, and from all areas of Psychology, all manuscripts being anonymously reviewed prior to publication.

  • Director: Laura E. Gómez Sánchez
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  • ISSN: 0214-9915
  • Digital Edition:: 1886-144X
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Spanish Adaptation of the Need for Affect Questionnaire (NAQ and NAQ-S)

Javier Horcajo , Rafael Gil and Miguel A. Sorrel

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain

Background: Need for affect (NA) refers to individual differences in the motivation to approach or avoid emotion-inducing situations and activities. Prior research has demonstrated that NA is a relevant construct for understanding psychological processes related to affect. The present study aimed to adapt and validate the English version of the Need for Affect Questionnaire (NAQ), as well as the short version (i.e., the NAQ-S), to Spanish. We examined evidence of validity and reliability in the NAQ and NAQ-S scores. Method: Study 1 (N = 416) analyzed the psychometric properties of scores from the Spanish adaptation of the NAQ, as well as the relationships with measures of other relevant psychological constructs. Study 2 (N = 118) tested the validity and reliability of scores from the Spanish adaptation of the NAQ-S. Results: We found two main factors (i.e., Emotion Approach and Emotion Avoidance), and the internal consistency of both the NAQ and the NAQ-S scores, as well as their test-retest reliability, were adequate. Relationships with other measures were in line with prior research, providing positive evidence of concurrent validity. Conclusions: Scores from both instruments showed validity and reliability, so should be considered in future research related to NA.

Antecedentes: La necesidad de afecto (NA) se refiere a las diferencias individuales en la motivación para buscar o evitar situaciones y actividades que inducen emoción. La investigación previa ha demostrado que la NA es un constructo relevante para entender procesos psicológicos relacionados con el afecto. La presente investigación adaptó al castellano el cuestionario de necesidad de afecto (NAQ), así como su versión breve (NAQ-S). Por tanto, examinamos las evidencias de validez y fiabilidad de las puntuaciones en ambos cuestionarios. Método: En el Estudio 1 (N = 416), exploramos las propiedades psicométricas de las puntuaciones en la adaptación del NAQ, así como las relaciones con medidas de otros constructos psicológicos relevantes. En el Estudio 2 (N = 118), analizamos la fiabilidad y la validez de las puntuaciones en la adaptación del NAQ-S. Resultados: Se encontraron dos factores (i.e., Aproximación a la Emoción y Evitación de la Emoción) y la consistencia interna, así como la fiabilidad test-retest, de las puntuaciones en ambos cuestionarios fueron adecuadas. Las relaciones con otras medidas proporcionaron evidencia positiva de la validez concurrente. Conclusiones: Las puntuaciones obtenidas en ambos cuestionarios mostraron validez y fiabilidad, por lo que deberían ser considerados en la investigación futura relacionada con la NA.


Impact factor 2022:  JCR WOS 2022:  FI = 3.6 (Q2);  JCI = 1.21 (Q1) / SCOPUS 2023:  SJR = 1.07;  CiteScore = 6.4 (Q1)