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Psicothema was founded in Asturias (northern Spain) in 1989, and is published jointly by the Psychology Faculty of the University of Oviedo and the Psychological Association of the Principality of Asturias (Colegio Oficial de Psicología del Principado de Asturias).
We currently publish four issues per year, which accounts for some 100 articles annually. We admit work from both the basic and applied research fields, and from all areas of Psychology, all manuscripts being anonymously reviewed prior to publication.

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VOL 35. Nº4 • 2023

 



Educational Psychology: The Key to Prevention and Child-Adolescent Mental Health

Maite Garaigordobil

Background: Educational psychology ranks second, after clinical psychology, in terms of professional activity profiles but in recent decades, the role of the educational psychologist has blurred. Method: The specialized literature was reviewed, and previous works by the author on the subject were updated. Results: This article emphasizes the relevance of educational psychology for the prevention and promotion of child and adolescent mental health. For this purpose, we must delimit the functions of the psychologist in educational contexts, differentiating it from other professional roles. To this end: (1) the main functions of the educational psychologist with students, their families, and teachers are proposed; (2) the postgraduate training necessary to perform these functions is described; and (3) the relevant role that educational centers can play in the promotion of child and adolescent mental health is shown, using, as an example, two problems: Bullying-cyberbullying and depression in childhood and adolescence. Conclusions: Schools should incorporate educational psychologists to develop assessment, prevention, and intervention activities, and schools must be contexts where emotional well-being is promoted and psychological and mental health problems are prevented. The work makes a proposal for intervention from educational psychology.

Antecedentes: La psicología educativa ocupa el segundo lugar, después de la psicología clínica, en cuanto a perfiles de actividad profesional, sin embargo, en las últimas décadas el papel del psicólogo educativo se ha desdibujado. Método: Se revisó la literatura especializada y se actualizaron trabajos previos del autor sobre el tema. Resultados: El artículo enfatiza la relevancia de la psicología educativa en la prevención y la promoción de la salud mental infanto-juvenil. Para ello es necesario delimitar las funciones del psicólogo en contextos educativos, diferenciándolo de otros roles profesionales. Con esta finalidad: (1) se plantean las principales funciones del psicólogo educativo con el alumnado, sus familias y el profesorado; (2) se describe la formación de postgrado necesaria para desarrollar estas funciones; y (3) se evidencia el relevante papel que pueden tener los centros educativos en la promoción de la salud mental infanto-juvenil, utilizando, a modo de ejemplo, dos problemas: el bullying-cyberbullying y la depresión en la infancia y adolescencia. Conclusiones: Las escuelas deben incorporar psicólogos educativos para desarrollar actividades de evaluación, prevención e intervención, y deben ser contextos donde promover el bienestar emocional, prevenir problemas psicológicos y de salud mental. El trabajo aporta una propuesta de intervención desde la psicología educativa.


Strategies for Promoting Reading Competence: Teaching Practices and Enjoyment of Reading

Elena Govorova , Isabel Benítez, and Marcelino Cuesta

Background: Reading literacy is key for personal development and educational success. Previous studies have examined variables that influence and enhance development of reading literacy in specific contexts. However, there is no consensus about which teaching practices encourage development of reading in different settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate how educational strategies influence the development of reading literacy and to analyse their predictive capacity in various cultural, educational and social contexts. Method: The study used data from 294,527 students from 37 countries collected as part of the PISA 2018 study. The data were analysed using an adaptation of the Difference in Differences methodology, which allowed us to isolate the effects of the factors on the acquisition of reading literacy. Results: Students who enjoyed reading and explicitly used an effective reading strategy had reading scores that outperformed their mathematics results on the PISA scale by 4 to 9 points on average. Conclusions: Identifying key factors in the acquisition of reading literacy—such as enjoyment of reading—and the use of effective strategies—such as summarizing texts—underscores the need for suitably targeted educational policies.

Antecedentes: La competencia lectora es clave para el crecimiento personal y el éxito educativo. Estudios previos han analizado las variables que potencian la competencia lectora en contextos específicos. Sin embargo, no existe consenso sobre las prácticas docentes que favorecen la evolución de esta competencia en distintos contextos. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la influencia de las estrategias educativas en el desarrollo de la competencia lectora y analizar su capacidad predictiva en distintos contextos culturales, educativos y sociales. Método: Se utilizaron datos de 294.527 alumnos de 37 países recogidos en el estudio PISA 2018. El análisis de datos se realizó mediante una adaptación de la metodología Diferencias en Diferencias, que permitió aislar el efecto de los factores sobre la competencia lectora. Resultados: Los resultados muestran que los estudiantes que disfrutan leyendo y utilizan explícitamente una estrategia de lectura eficaz superan entre 4 y 9 puntos de media los resultados en matemáticas en la escala de PISA. Conclusiones: La identificación de factores clave en la adquisición de la competencia lectora, como el disfrute de la lectura y la utilización de estrategias eficaces de comprensión y síntesis de textos escritos, enfatiza la necesidad de generar políticas educativas orientadas a su desarrollo.


Self-Perceived Bullying Victimization in Pre-Adolescent Schoolchildren With ADHD

Núria Voltas, , Paula Morales-Hidalgo, , Carmen Hernández-Martínez and Josefa Canals-Sans

Background: Bullying is highly prevalent among children and adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This study investigates self-perceived bullying victimization and related sociodemographic, psychopathological, cognitive, and academic characteristics in pre-adolescents with ADHD compared to controls. Method: The participants were 424 pre-adolescents, 138 of whom had ADHD. Self-perceived bullying victimization was assessed with the Bullying and School Violence questionnaire. This study is part of a larger double-phase epidemiologic cross-sectional study. Results: A total of 35% of the ADHD pre-adolescents self-reported bullying victimization. ADHD-combined presentation showed the highest prevalence of co-occurring self-perceived bullying victimization. After the effects of socioeconomic level, gender, place of birth, intelligence quotient and autism had been controlled, we observed that presenting ADHD increased the likelihood of self-perceived bullying victimization almost 3-fold. Having ADHD and self-perceived bullying victimization were significantly associated with higher rates of the co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing psychological problems. Comorbidity with ASD was higher in ADHD + bullying cases. Pre-adolescents with ADHD had lower cognitive scores and worse academic outcomes regardless of whether they were being bullied or not. Conclusions: In bullying prevention and intervention, special attention should be paid to ADHD as a vulnerability factor for self-perceived victimization, with negative consequences for emotional well-being and behavior.

Antecedentes: El acoso escolar es altamente prevalente entre niños/adolescentes con TDAH. Se estudió la victimización por acoso escolar autopercibida y las características sociodemográficas, psicopatológicas, cognitivas y académicas relacionadas en preadolescentes con TDAH en comparación con un grupo control. Método: Participaron 424 preadolescentes, 138 con TDAH. La victimización por acoso autopercibida se evaluó con el cuestionario de Acoso y Violencia Escolar. Este trabajo forma parte de un estudio epidemiológico transversal en doble fase más amplio. Resultados: El 35% de los preadolescentes con TDAH reportaron haber sido víctimas de acoso escolar. El TDAHpresentación combinada mostró la mayor coocurrencia de victimización por acoso autopercibida. Controlados los efectos del nivel socioeconómico, sexo, lugar de nacimiento, coeficiente intelectual y autismo, esta presentación aumentaba casi 3-veces la probabilidad de victimización por acoso autopercibida. El TDAH y la percepción de victimización se asociaron significativamente con altas tasas de coocurrencia de problemas psicológicos internalizantes/externalizantes. La comorbilidad con TEA fue mayor en el TDAH + acoso. Los preadolescentes TDAH tenían puntuaciones cognitivas más bajas y peores resultados académicos, independientemente de si estaban siendo acosados. Conclusiones: En prevención e intervención del bullyingdebe prestarse especial atención al TDAH como factor de vulnerabilidad, con consecuencias negativas para el bienestar emocional y comportamiento.


Is it the Child´s Fault? Maternal Attributions in Child Abuse and Neglect

Cláudia Camilo, , Margarida Vaz Garrido and Maria Manuela Calheiros

Background: Among the parental cognitions explaining maladaptive parenting, attributions about a child’s misbehavior seem important. However, there is little research on neglectful parents, and the different patterns of parental attributions associated with child abuse and child neglect are still underexplained. The current study examines parental attributions associated with child abuse and child neglect. Method: Mothers (N = 218) were asked to evaluate vignettes describing child transgressions, half of which were followed by situational information. Child abuse and child neglect were evaluated through mothers’ and professionals’ reports. Results: Preliminary results indicated that the child’s age and maternal socioeconomic status were significantly correlated with attributions and child abuse and neglect scores and thus were controlled in the models. The results from hierarchical regressions indicated that dispositional attributions were associated with higher abuse scores (reported by mothers), even in the presence of situational information. Likewise, dispositional attributions were associated with higher neglect scores (reported by professionals), but the effect was no longer significant in the presence of situational information. Conclusions: These findings contribute to the current socio-cognitive approaches to child maltreatment and provide relevant input for understanding the different attributional mechanisms underlying child abuse and neglect.

Antecedentes: Entre las cogniciones parentales que explican la parentalidad desadaptativa, las atribuciones sobre el comportamiento del niño parecen importantes. Sin embargo, hay pocas investigaciones sobre los padres negligentes, y los patrones de atribuciones parentales que se asocian con el abuso y la negligencia siguen sin explicarse. Éste estudio examina las atribuciones parentales asociadas con el abuso y la negligencia infantil. Método: La muestra estaba compuesta por 218 madres que evaluaron viñetas que describían transgresiones infantiles, la mitad con información situacional. Abuso y negligencia se evaluaron a través de informes de madres y profesionales. Resultados: Los resultados indicaron que la edad del niño y el estatus socioeconómico estaban correlacionados con las atribuciones y con el abuso y negligencia, por lo que fueron controlados en los modelos. Los resultados de las regresiones jerárquicas indicaron que las atribuciones disposicionales se asociaron con el abuso (informes de madres), incluso en presencia de información situacional. Las atribuciones disposicionales se asociaron con la negligencia (informes de profesionales), pero no hay efecto en presencia de información situacional. Conclusiones: Estos hallazgos corroboran a los actuales enfoques sociocognitivos del maltrato infantil y proporcionan aportaciones relevantes para entender los diferentes mecanismos atribucionales que subyacen al abuso y la negligencia infantil.


Patients´ and Therapists´ Reports of Psychotherapy Outcomes: Similarities and Differences

Concepción Fernández-Rodríguez* , Víctor Loredo-Martínez* and Rocío Coto-Lesmes

Background: Discrepancies between therapists’ and patients’ measures regarding therapeutic results indicate the need to analyze which symptoms and processes are being taken into consideration when reporting clinical change. This study analyzes the concordance between patient and therapist, at pre- and post-treatment, when reporting about anxiety, depression, Experiential Avoidance (EA), Cognitive Fusion (CF) and Activation (A). Method: Convergence was examined between information obtained by means of standardized measures and visual analogical scales (VAS) in 94 patients with anxiety and/or depression who participated in a controlled clinical study (TRANSACTIVA study). Results: Statistically significant correlation (p < .05) was found between all the measures of anxiety and depression, regardless of the source, timepoint, and measures procedure at 95% confidence. In the VAS, patient and therapist agreed (p < .05) in their evaluation of specific symptoms. For EA, CF and A, the therapists’ measures demonstrated stronger correlations than those of the patients, although, in each condition, all the patients’ measures correlated with each other (p < .05). Conclusions: Suitable agreement was found between therapist and patient when reporting clinical change. One-item VAS appeared to b suitable for identifying anxiety, depression and the transdiagnostic patterns of EA, CF and A.

Antecedentes: Las discrepancias entre terapeutas y pacientes sobre los resultados terapéuticos indican la necesidad de analizar qué síntomas y procesos se tienen en cuenta al evaluar el cambio clínico. Se analizó la correspondencia entre paciente y terapeuta, en pre y post tratamiento, al informar sobre ansiedad, depresión, Evitación Experiencial (EA), Fusión Cognitiva (FC) y Activación (A). Método: Se examinó la convergencia entre la información obtenida mediante cuestionarios estandarizados y escalas analógicas visuales (EVA) en 94 pacientes con ansiedad y/o depresión que participaron en un estudio clínico controlado (estudio TRANSACTIVA). Resultados: Se encontró correlación significativa (p < .05) entre todas las medidas de ansiedad y depresión, independientemente de la fuente, momento y procedimiento de medida al 95% de confianza. En la EVA, paciente y terapeuta coincidieron (p < .05) al valorar síntomas específicos. Respecto a EA, CF y A, las medidas del terapeuta mostraron correlaciones más altas y significativas que las del paciente, aunque, en cada condición, todas las medidas del paciente se correlacionaron entre sí (p < .05). Conclusiones: Se observó adecuada correspondencia entre terapeuta y paciente al informar sobre el cambio clínico. La EVA de un ítem parece adecuada para identificar ansiedad, depresión y patrones transdiagnósticos de EA, CF y A.


Efficacy of EMDR in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

Pedro Rasines-Laudes and Isabel Serrano-Pintado

Background: In recent years, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) has spread, in both the number of publications and professionals who use this technique in the clinical setting. The objective of this meta-analysis was to verify the efficacy of EMDR in treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Method: Based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 18 articles were selected (n = 1213 subjects), published between 1991-2022. Results: The effect sizes found in the meta-analysis were small in the reduction of symptoms associated with PTSD, anxiety and depression, both in post-treatment and in maintenance. The analysis of the moderating variables revealed that both intervention time, the number and duration of the sessions, the experience of the therapist, and the type of therapist in charge of the intervention play an important role in the size of the final effect. No statistically significant data were found in the meta-regression analysis. Conclusions: Although the study had restrictive criteria for study selection, there is a certain risk of bias in the selected articles, which lack sufficient methodological quality to be extrapolated to the clinical field.

Antecedentes: En los últimos años la desensibilización y reprocesamiento por movimientos oculares (EMDR) se está extendiendo tanto en su número de publicaciones como de profesionales que utilizan esta técnica en el ámbito clínico. El presente meta-análisis tiene como objetivo comprobar la eficacia del EMDR en el tratamiento del trastorno de estrés post-traumático. Método: A partir de los criterios de inclusión/exclusión fueron seleccionados 18 artículos (n = 1213 sujetos), entre los años 1991-2022. Resultados: Los tamaños del efecto hallados en el meta-análisis fueron pequeños en la reducción de síntomas asociados al TEPT, ansiosos y depresivos, tanto en el pos-tratamiento como en el mantenimiento. El análisis de las variables moderadoras reveló que el tiempo de intervención, el número y la duración de las sesiones, la veteranía del terapeuta y el tipo de terapeuta encargado de la intervención juegan un papel importante en el tamaño del efecto final. No se encontraron datos estadísticamente significativos en el análisis de la metarregresión. Conclusiones: Sin embargo, aunque el estudio cuenta con criterios restrictivos en cuanto a la selección de los estudios, existe cierto riesgo de sesgo en los artículos seleccionados que carecen de una calidad metodológica suficiente para ser extrapolados al ámbito clínico.


Risk Factors Associated with Gambling on Loot Boxes

Francisco J. Sanmartín, Judith Velasco, Mario Gálvez-Lara, Fátima Cuadrado and Juan A. Moriana

Background: Loot boxes (LBs) are virtual objects that players open without knowing the value of the item they will obtain. Because of their features, studies have explored their association with gambling, finding commonalities. However, risk factors have been overlooked. This study examined risk factors associated with gambling as applied to LBs (gambling in the past year, having family/friends who use LBs/gamble, trait impulsivity, and sensation-seeking). Method: 253 participants (82.2% men) with a mean age of 28 years (SD = 12.11)—in three groups: gamblers (n = 89), LB purchasers (n = 63), and free-LB openers (n = 101)—completed a self-report. Results: Having family/friends who used LBs was related to increased engagement in opening LBs at no cost. However, having gambled in the past year or having family/friends who used LBs or who gambled was not associated with increased purchasing. Gamblers, LB purchasers, and LB openers scored equally highly on impulsivity and sensation-seeking. Because some gamblers used LBs, and LB purchasers also opened free-LBs, further analyses were performed to control for the effects of overlapping groups. Loot boxers had higher scores in sensation-seeking than gamblers. Conclusions: The results can contribute to the development of prevention and intervention strategies for LB users.

Antecedentes: Las loot boxes (LBs) son objetos virtuales que se abren desconociendo el valor del artículo que contienen. Aunque se han relacionado con el juego de azar, sus factores de riesgo apenas han sido explorados. Este estudio examina los factores de riesgo del juego de azar en LBs (jugar a juegos de azar, tener familiares/amigos que usan LBs/juegan a juegos de azar, impulsividad-rasgo y búsqueda de sensaciones). Método: 253 participantes (M = 28, DT = 12.11, 82.2% hombres), distribuidos en tres grupos: jugadores de azar (n = 89), compradores de LBs (n = 63) y abridores de LBs gratuitas (n = 101), completaron un autoinforme. Resultados: Tener familiares/amigos que usaban LBs se relacionaba con la apertura gratuita, pero jugar a juegos de azar o tener familiares/amigos que usaban LBs/jugaron a juegos de azar no se relacionaba con la compra. Los tres grupos puntuaron igual en impulsividad y búsqueda de sensaciones. Tras controlar el solapamiento (algunos jugadores de azar usaban LBs, y los compradores de LBs abrían LBs gratuitas), los loot boxers puntuaron más alto en búsqueda de sensaciones que los jugadores de azar. Conclusiones: Conocer las comunalidades entre LBs y juegos de azar puede contribuir a su prevención e intervención.


Development and Validation of the Brief Math Anxiety Scale (BMAS) in University Students

M. Isabel Núñez-Peña and Georgina Guilera

Background: This study developed the Brief Math Anxiety Scale (BMAS), a brief version of the Shortened Math Anxiety Rating Scale (sMARS), maintaining its original three-factor structure, by applying item response theory. Method: The sMARS was administered to 1,349 undergraduates, along with other questionnaires to measure their math ability, trait and test anxieties, and attitudes toward mathematics. Results: Results showed that the original scale could be reduced to nine items (three for each subscale). We provided evidence of good psychometric properties: strong internal consistency, adequate 7-week test-retest reliability, and good convergent/discriminant validity. Conclusions: In conclusion, the BMAS provides valid interpretations and reliable scores for assessing math anxiety in university students, and is especially useful in situations with time constraints where the longer form is impractical.

Antecedentes: En este estudio se presenta el desarrollo de la Brief Math Anxiety Scale (BMAS), una versión breve de la Shortened Math Anxiety Rating Scale (sMARS) manteniendo su estructura original de tres factores, aplicando la teoría de respuesta al ítem. Método: La sMARS, así como otros cuestionarios para medir su capacidad matemática, la ansiedad rasgo y frente a los exámenes y las actitudes hacia las matemáticas, se administraron a 1.349 estudiantes universitarios. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron que la escala original podía reducirse a nueve ítems (tres para cada subescala). Proporcionamos evidencia de sus buenas propiedades psicométricas: consistencia interna excelente, adecuada fiabilidad test-retest a las 7 semanas y buena validez convergente/discriminante. Conclusiones: En conclusión, la BMAS proporciona interpretaciones válidas y puntuaciones fiables para evaluar la ansiedad matemática en estudiantes universitarios y es especialmente útil en situaciones con disponibilidad de tiempo limitado, donde la forma más larga no es aplicable.


Social Expectancy Increases Skin Conductance Response in Mobile Instant Messaging Users

Ana María Ruiz-Ruano García, Ana Sánchez-Kuhn, Pilar Flores and Jorge López Puga

Background: Society is witnessing two parallel phenomena: an increase in the number of mobile phone users worldwide and a growing concern about problematic smartphone use. Leading explanatory models suggest that social reward may explain some problematic smartphone use. Given that experimental evidence about the impact of social variables on problematic smartphone use is scarce, the impact of social expectancy on emotional arousal measured with skin conductance response (SCR) was analysed during instant messaging. Method: A sample of 86 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two groups. Experimental group participants were instructed to send a social expectation-generating message to their more active contacts in their preferred social network. After experiencing a virtual reality distraction environment, participants’ SCR was measured when they were allowed to use the smartphone and when it was withdrawn. Results: Participants in the experimental group showed a higher SCR response than the control group. Peaks analysis also showed that peak amplitude was higher in experimental participants when their smartphones were used and withdrawn. Experimental participants also showed a longer half recovery time when using the smartphone. Conclusions: Social expectancy is a critical variable in understanding problematic smartphone use and it should be considered in clinical contexts.

Antecedentes: La sociedad está presenciando dos fenómenos paralelos: el incremento mundial de usuarios de teléfonos móviles y una preocupación creciente por el uso problemático de estos dispositivos. Los modelos teóricos explicativos sugieren que la recompensa social podría explicar parte del uso problemático del teléfono móvil. Dado que la evidencia experimental sobre el impacto que lo social tiene en este fenómeno es limitada, el impacto de la expectativa social sobre el arousalemocional fue analizada mientras se usó mensajería instantánea. Método: Una muestra de 86 estudiantes se asignó aleatoriamente a dos grupos. Los participantes del grupo experimental enviaron un mensaje generador de expectativa social a sus contactos más activos usando su red social preferida. Tras un periodo de distracción, a respuesta electrodérmica de la piel se midió al usar y retirar el móvil. Resultados: El grupo experimental mostró mayores niveles de arousal. El análisis de picos muestra una mayor amplitud en el grupo experimental cuando se usó y se retiró el móvil. Un tiempo de recuperación medio más largo se observó en el grupo experimental al usar el móvil. Conclusiones: La expectativa social es una variable crítica para conceptualizar el uso problemático del móvil y debería considerarse en contextos clínicos.


Taste Neophobia, Latent Inhibition of Taste Aversion and Object Recognition Memory in Adolescent Rats

Alejandro N. Expósito, Ana Vázquez-Agredos, Sergio Menchén, Fernando Gámiz and Milagros Gallo

Background: Adolescence in mammals is a period marked by increased novelty-seeking and enhanced responsiveness to the stressful properties of novel stimuli. Despite the need to taste potentially toxic novel foods during the adolescent growth spurt, there has been little study of taste neophobia and its attenuation. Method: Four experiments were carried out to compare taste neophobia and related memory processes in male and female adolescent (PND28) and adult (PND70) Wistar rats. Experiments 1 and 2 evaluated attenuation of taste neophobia to cider vinegar (3%) and sodium saccharin (0.1%) solutions were evaluated. Additionally, to test the role of memory in neophobia during adolescence, latent inhibition of taste aversion and object recognition memory were assessed in Experiment 3 and Experiment 4, respectively. Results: Adolescent and adult rats exhibited taste neophobia to the saccharin solution but adolescent rats required more exposure trials than adults to recognize the vinegar solution as safe. Both groups exhibited similar latent inhibition of taste aversion and object recognition memory. No sex effect was significant. Conclusions: Contrary to the accepted view associating adolescence with reduced neophobia, adolescent rats exhibited taste neophobia which even increased when sour tastes were encountered.

Antecedentes: La adolescencia está marcada por búsqueda de la novedad y acentuada sensibilidad a las propiedades estresantes de los estímulos novedosos. A pesar de la necesidad de probar nuevos alimentos potencialmente tóxicos durante el periodo de crecimiento adolescente, la neofobia gustativa y su atenuación durante este periodo apenas ha sido estudiada. Método: Se evaluaron la neofobia gustativa y los procesos de memoria relacionados en ratas Wistar macho y hembra adolescentes (PND28) y adultas (PND70). En los Experimentos 1 y 2 Se exploró la atenuación de la neofobia gustativa a soluciones de vinagre de sidra (3%) y sacarina sódica (0,1%), respectivamente. En los experimentos 3 y 4, se evaluó también la inhibición latente de aversiones gustativas y la memoria de reconocimiento de objetos. Resultados: Adolescentes y adultos mostraron neofobia gustativa a la sacarina, pero las ratas adolescentes requirieron más exposiciones a la solución de vinagre para reconocerla como segura. No hubo diferencias entre los grupos en los Experimentos 3 and 4. No se hallaron efectos significativos del sexo. Conclusiones: A pesar de la ampliamente aceptada asociación entre adolescencia y reducida neofobia, las ratas adolescentes muestran neofobia al sabor que resulta incluso incrementada cuando se trata de sabores ácidos.


Corrigendum to: ‘Socioeconomic Status, Cultural Capital, and Social Capital in Adults’ [Psicothema 34(1) pág- 74-83]

Elisa Menardo, Marta Viola, Irene Pierluigi, Chiara Cretella, Roberto Cubelli and Giulia Balboni

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2023.193

Text:

This article was originally published with errors, which have now been corrected in the online version:

1. The investigated alternative models have now been described more clearly. The method for comparing them with the original model has been correctly specified based only on Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) and not on the delta Comparative Fit Index, given that the models are not nested.
2. The formula for computing the critical value to which comparing the Mardia’s index for verifying if the data are multivariate normally distributed is equal to k(k+2) and not, as previously written, equal to k(k+1).
3. We have now specified that, in the Structural Equation Model, the correlations introduced between the dependent variables are correlations between the unexplained variance and thus may be described as partial correlations.
4. Finally, we have corrected the direction of the arrows of the lines from Participating, Consuming, and Expert Using observed variables toward the corresponding Cultural Capital latent variable and from Bonding and Bridging observed variables toward the corresponding social capital latent variable.

DOI of original article: (https://doi.org/10.7334/ psicothema2021.231)



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