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Psicothema was founded in Asturias (northern Spain) in 1989, and is published jointly by the Psychology Faculty of the University of Oviedo and the Psychological Association of the Principality of Asturias (Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos del Principado de Asturias).
We currently publish four issues per year, which accounts for some 100 articles annually. We admit work from both the basic and applied research fields, and from all areas of Psychology, all manuscripts being anonymously reviewed prior to publication.

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Psicothema, 2002. Vol. Vol. 14 (Suplem.1). 109-117




Los efectos de la violencia sobre sus víctimas

Carmen Herrero Alonso, Eugenio Garrido Martín

Universidad de Salamanca

Este artículo presenta una revisión de las principales líneas de investigación sobre los efectos de la violencia en sus víctimas. Más exactamente, se centrará en los efectos psicosociales de la denominada violencia criminal o delictiva. Se analiza su alcance y la diversidad de víctimas a las que afecta. A pesar de que han sido las víctimas de los delitos sexuales –generalmente mujeres- las que han suscitado mayor interés desde distintos ámbitos de investigación, se constata como las víctimas de otros delitos, así como las personas que las rodean, manifiestan una problemática importante. En el caso de los niños, además, la exposición a la violencia puede afectar su futuro desarrollo moral y sus logros académicos. Adoptando una perspectiva ecológica de la violencia se analizan los efectos comunes así como los factores que median o moderan tales efectos. Se plantea que el impacto del delito dependerá de las complejas interacciones que se establezcan entre las características de las personas victimizadas, las del hecho delictivo y las del ambiente social en el que el ajuste y la posible recuperación tienen lugar. Se muestra como, entre otros factores, el apoyo social recibido o percibido por las víctimas tiene consecuencias importantes para su ajuste.

The effects of violence upon its victims.In this paper a review of the main areas of inquiry upon the effects that violence has on its victims is presented. More specifically, the focus will be upon the psychosocial effects of the so-called criminal violence. Its scope and the diversity of victims affected by it is analysed. Although those who have received most attention by researchers from several fields have been the victims of sexual offences –mostly womenó, it is apparent that victims of offences other than sexual abuse, as well as those people which are close to them, suffer from important consequences as well. In addition, when the victim is a child, exposure to violence have an influence upon his or her moral development and academic achievements. From an ecological standpoint, the common effects of violence upon its victims, as well as those factors which influence or moderate them, are examined. It is argued that the crime impact will be dependent on the complex interactions among the particular characteristics of the victims, the delictive act, and the social environment where the victims’s adjustment and their potential recovery shall take place. It is shown how, among other factors, the social support victims receive or perceive from others has important consequences on their adjustment.

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