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Psicothema was founded in Asturias (northern Spain) in 1989, and is published jointly by the Psychology Faculty of the University of Oviedo and the Psychological Association of the Principality of Asturias (Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos del Principado de Asturias).
We currently publish four issues per year, which accounts for some 100 articles annually. We admit work from both the basic and applied research fields, and from all areas of Psychology, all manuscripts being anonymously reviewed prior to publication.

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Psicothema, 2012. Vol. Vol. 24 (nº 3). 377-383




Desarrollo infantil y adolescente: trastornos mentales más frecuentes en función de la edad y el género

Esperanza Navarro-Pardo, Juan Carlos Meléndez Moral, Alicia Sales Galán y Mª Dolores Sancerni Beitia

Universidad de Valencia

A pesar del incremento en las tasas de incidencia y prevalencia de los trastornos en la infancia y adolescencia, son pocos los trabajos con muestras amplias y representativas de niños y adolescentes con síntomas psicopatológicos. El presente trabajo analiza 588 sujetos derivados por los pediatras de Atención Primaria a una unidad especializada de Salud Mental de Infancia y Adolescencia. Como resultados se observan relaciones significativas entre edad y diagnóstico, de modo que de 0-5 años la mayor incidencia se da en trastornos de conducta, comunicación, eliminación, control de impulsos y trastornos generalizados del desarrollo; entre 6-11 aparecen también los trastornos de conducta seguidos del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH); entre 12-15 años, trastornos de conducta y de ansiedad; y de 16 hasta 18 años, trastornos de conducta. Respecto al género, existe relación significativa con el diagnóstico, con mayor incidencia en los chicos de los trastornos de la conducta, y de ansiedad en las chicas. Como conclusiones, se indica la existencia de relación entre trastornos y adquisiciones evolutivas en el grupo de menor edad, y mayor incidencia de trastornos externalizantes en chicos e internalizantes en chicas en todos los grupos de edad.

Child and adolescent development: Common mental disorders according to age and gender. Despite the increase in the incidence and prevalence rates of children and adolescents’ mental disorders, there are few works performed with large and representative samples of children and adolescents with psychopathological symptoms. The present work analyses 588 participants referred by first care pediatricians to a specialized unit for children and adolescents’ mental health. As a result of the study, a statistically significant relation was found between age and diagnosis: a larger incidence of behavioral disorders, communication disorders, elimination disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, impulse-control disorders from 0 to 5 years; behavioral disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were more common from 6 to 11 years, behavioral and anxiety disorders were more likely at 12 to 15 years; and, lastly, behavioral disorders were more prevalent from 16 to 18 years. With respect to gender, there was a significant relationship with diagnosis: boys had more behavioral disorders, whereas girl had more anxiety disorders. To conclude, a relationship between mental disorders and developmental achievements could be indicated in the younger group. Additionally, externalizing disorders in boys and internalizing ones n girls were more prevalent across all ages.

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