Psicothema was founded in Asturias (northern Spain) in 1989, and is published jointly by the Psychology Faculty of the University of Oviedo and the Psychological Association of the Principality of Asturias (Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos del Principado de Asturias).
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Adaptation and validation in Spanish of the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) with professional football players

Francisco Miguel Leo, Inmaculada González-Ponce, David Sánchez-Oliva, Juan José Pulido and Tomás García-Calvo

Universidad de Extremadura

Background: This investigation presents two studies with the goal of adapting and validating a short version of the Group Environment Questionnaire in the Spanish sport context with professional players. Method: Study 1 used a sample of 377 male soccer players aged between 18 and 39 years (M = 24.51, SD = 3.73), in a preliminary study using exploratory factor analysis. Study 2 used a sample of 604 professional male and female athletes, ages between 15 and 38 years (M = 24.34, SD = 4.03). The data analyzed were collected at three moments of the season. For each measurement, we developed seven first- and second-order structures that were analyzed with confirmatory factor analysis. Results: Study 1 indicated appropriate factorial validity (> .60) and internal consistency (> .70), with only Item 3 presenting a low factor loading (.11), so its drafting was modified in the next study. Study 2 revealed that the Spanish version of the GEQ has high levels of internal consistency (> .70) and acceptable fit index values in its original four first-order factor structure in all three measurements (χ2/df = 4.39, CFI = .95, IFI = .95, RMSEA = .07, SRMR = .04, AIC = 271.09). Discriminant validity (from r = .45 to r = .72) and concurrent validity (from r = .21 to r = .60) also presented appropriate values. Lastly, we conducted analysis of invariance, confirming that the models established in the different measurements were invariant. Conclusions: The short 12-item adaptation of the GEQ to Spanish is a valid and reliable instrument to measure team cohesion in professional male and female soccer players.

Adaptación y validación al español del Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) con jugadores profesionales de fútbol. Antecedentes: esta investigación presenta dos estudios cuyo objetivo era adaptar y validar al contexto deportivo español una versión corta del Group Environment Questionnaire con jugadores profesionales. Método: el Estudio 1 contó con 377 jugadores de fútbol de género masculino con edades entre 18 y 39 años (M = 24.51; DT = 3.73), con los que se realizó un estudio preliminar mediante un análisis factorial exploratorio. El Estudio 2 contó con 604 deportistas masculinos y femeninos profesionales con edades entre 15 y 38 años (M = 24.34; DT = 4.03). Los datos analizados fueron recogidos en tres momentos de la temporada. Se desarrollaron siete estructuras de primer y segundo orden que fueron sometidas a un análisis factorial confirmatorio. Resultados: el Estudio 1 indica una validez factorial (>.60) y consistencia interna adecuada (>.70) del instrumento, donde únicamente el ítem 3 presentó una saturación baja (.11) y se modificó su redacción para el estudio 2. El Estudio 2 revela que la versión española del GEQ demuestra alta consistencia interna (>.70) e índices aceptables en su estructura factorial original con cuatro factores de primer orden en las tres medidas (χ2/df = 4.39; CFI = .95; IFI = .95; RMSEA = .07; SRMR = .04; AIC = 271.09). Además, la validez discriminante (desde r = .45 a r = .72) y concurrente (desde r = .21 a r = .60) demostraron valores adecuados. Finalmente se realizó un análisis de la invarianza que demostró que los modelos eran invariantes en las diferentes medidas. Conclusiones: la adaptación corta de 12 ítems del GEQ al español es un instrumento válido y fiable para medir la cohesión de equipo en jugadores y jugadoras profesionales de fútbol.


Impact factor 2021:   JCR (WOS): 4.104 (Q1)   |   SJR (Scopus) : 1.308 (Q1)    |  CiteScore 2020: 5,3