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Psicothema was founded in Asturias (northern Spain) in 1989, and is published jointly by the Psychology Faculty of the University of Oviedo and the Psychological Association of the Principality of Asturias (Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos del Principado de Asturias).
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Socioeconomic Status, Cultural Capital, and Social Capital in Adults: A Structural Equation Model

Elisa Menardo1, Marta Viola2, Irene Pierluigi3, Chiara Cretella3, Roberto Cubelli4, and Giulia Balboni3

1 University of Verona,
2 Sapienza University of Roma,
3 University of Perugia, and
4 University of Trento

Background: Sociocultural level (SCL) comprises Socioeconomic Status (SES), Cultural Capital (CC), and Social Capital (SC). The relationships between all SCL dimensions have never been investigated. This study aimed to develop a structural equation model representing how age affects the relationships between educational level, occupational prestige (as a measure of SES), CC, and SC for men and women. Method: SES, dimensions of CC and SC were measured with valid scales for 654 adults (63% female) aged 19 to 74 years (M[SD] = 42.86 [13.32]), that had or used to have an occupation and the majority of whom had at least a university degree (65%). All lived in a medium-sized town in Italy. Results: Age affected the interrelated indicators of SES (educational level and occupational prestige), which in turn affected the interrelated dimensions CC and SC (CFI = .97; RMSEA = .073 [CI = .053 - .095]; SRMR = 0.031). The system of relationships was simpler in men than in women, with educational level being less relevant in affecting the other constructs. Conclusions: The hierarchical structure of SCL and effect of age and gender must be properly taken into account in studies on the effects of SCL on human behavior.

Estatus Socioeconómico, Capital Cultural y Capital Social en Adultos: un Modelo de Ecuaciones Estructurales. Antecedentes: el Nivel Sociocultural (NSC) es compuesto de Estatus Socioeconómico (ESS), Capital Cultural (CC) y Capital Social (CS). Nunca se han investigado las relaciones entre las dimensiones del NSC. Este estudio tiene como objetivo desarrollar un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales que represente cómo afecta la edad a las relaciones entre el nivel educativo, el prestigio ocupacional (como medida del ESS), el CC y el CS en hombres y mujeres. Método: el nivel educativo, el prestigio ocupacional, las dimensiones del CC y el CS se midieron con escalas validadas en 654 adultos (63% mujeres), de 19 a 74 años de edad, la mayoría en posesión de al menos un título universitario (65%), que tenían o habían tenido una ocupación laboral. Todos vivían en el municipio de una ciudad italiana de tamaño medio. Resultados: la edad afecta a los indicadores interrelacionados del ESS, que a su vez afectan a las dimensiones interrelacionadas de CC y CS (CFI = .97; RMSEA = .073 [CI = .053 - .095]; SRMR = 0.031). Conclusiones: la estructura jerárquica del NSC y los efectos sobre el mismo de la edad y el género deben ser tenidos en cuenta en el estudio de los efectos del NSC.

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